Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 2nd International Conference on Pharmaceutical Chemistry Barcelona, Spain.

Day 3 :

  • Renowned speakers

Chair

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Session Introduction

Tove Tuntland

Genomics Institute of Novartis Research Foundation (GNF), USA

Title: Target Based vs. Phenotypic Screening Approaches in Drug Discovery
Speaker
Biography:

Tove Tuntland holds a Pharmacy degree from the University in Oslo, Norway, and a Ph.D. in Pharmaceutics from the University of Washington, Seattle, USA. She has expertise in preclinical drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics (DMPK), pharmacology and PK/PD, and worked in discovery and development at Pfizer Global Research and Development (PGRD) in La Jolla, California (1996 to 2002). Thereafter until present time she has led a group at Genomics Institute of Novartis Research Foundation (GNF), supporting in vitro and in vivo preclinical DMPK and PK/PD studies in a variety of discovery and development programs in oncology, immunology, infectious and metabolic diseases. 

Abstract:

Target-based drug discovery can effectively develop novel treatments for a validated target, but the process of target validation is complex and associated with high degree of uncertainty[1]. As an alternative to the target based approach, phenotypic screening is making a comeback in drug discovery. Such assays characterize phenotypic events related to disease modification and do not require prior understanding of the mechanism of action[2]. At GNF/Novartis, scientists have used both target based and phenotypic screening approaches to successfully identify novel drugs. Target based methods lead to the discovery of ceritinib (Zykadia™, formerly LDK378), a highly potent and selective anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor which was recently approved by the FDA for the treatment of patients with ALK-positive metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who were previously treated with crizotinib.  Phenotypic screening led to the discovery of cipargamin (KAE609), the first new antimalarial drug candidate with a completely novel mechanism of action to reach phase 2 clinical development in over 20 years. When tested clinically in adults with uncomplicated P. vivax or P. falciparum malaria, cipargamin was shown to clear parasitemia after 3 days of repeated dosing. Also identified by phenotypic screening, the novel antimalarial drug KAF156 demonstrated activity against both liver and blood stage malaria, including artemisinin-resistant parasites. The approaches used to discover and develop the novel drugs ceritinib, cipargamin and KAF156 will be discussed.

Speaker
Biography:

Victor Shtamburg has completed his PhD at the age of 26 years from Dnipropetrovsk National University (Ukraine). He is chemist and scientist of Ukrainian State University of Chemical Technology (Dnepr). He has published more than 14 papers in reputed journals.

Abstract:

It is known that hydantoins are used as drugs and precursors for drugs synthesis. But the easy method for synthesis of N-hydroxyhydantoins and N-alkoxyhydantoins was not known before. We have proposed that interaction of arylglyoxals with N-hydroxyurea or with N-alkoxyureas may be a simple route to        3-hydroxy-5-arylhydantoins and to 3-alkoxy-5-arylhydantoins respectively. As we found, arylglyoxals reacted with N-hydroxyurea in an aqueous solution at room temperature according to exact scheme. At the first stage the substituted urea formed. At the second stage urea cyclizes into 3,4,5-trihydroxyimidazolidine-2-ones. Compounds were protonized by N-hydroxyurea with further elimination of the water molecule from С-5 atom. Then 1,2-shift of hydrogen atom from atom С(4) to atom С(5) occurs, yielding 3-hydroxyl-5-arylhydantoin. This interaction may be stopped on different stages. It depends not only on nature of arylglyoxal, but also on the reaction conditions. In these conditions the products of stages I, II, III may be isolated depending of the arylglyoxal structure and temperature. Thus, the reaction of arylglyoxals with N-hydroxyurea in acetic acid at room temperature selectively yields only 3-hydroxy-5-arylimidazolidine-2,4-diones. The reaction of arylglyoxals with N-alkoxyureas in acetic acid at room temperature also selectively yields 3-alkoxy-5-arylimidazolidine-2,4-diones. Also in acetic acid arylglyoxals react with thiourea selectively yielding 5-arylimidazolidine-4-one-2-thiones at room temperature.

Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Venkatesan J. has completed his PhD from Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra in the year 2012. He is currently serving as Associate Professor in Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Technology, BIT, Mesra. He has around 50 publications to his credit in the area of drug design and medicinal chemistry. His research group in BIT is currently working in the area of drug design against the validated targets of tuberculosis and emerging virus like Dengue and Chikungunya. He is also serving as Editor of Journal of Pharmaceutical Chemistry.  
 

Abstract:

Developing newer antitubercular agents having novel chemical scaffold targeting novel  proteins is essential to face the threat due to MDR and XDR tuberculosis. Mycobactin is a hexadentate ligand secreted by the tubercular bacilli to overcome the iron stress that it experiences once inside the host cell. Inhibiting any enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway will be novel approach in developing a newer chemotherapeutic agent against tuberculosis. Our group is working on mimics of phenyloxazoline portion of mycobactin. We identified, 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-carbothioamide (1) as a potential inhibitor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under iron stressed condition (Bioorg Med Chem Lett, 2008, 18(8):2662-8). We hypothesize that this compound as a putative inhibitor of phenyloxazoline synthetase, an enzyme in the mycobactin biosynthetic pathway catalysing the condensation/cyclization salicylic acid and serine. Compound 1 is a racemic mixture and their component isomers were found to be equipotent in nature (unpublished data). Further modification at the 1N of pyrazoline replacing the –C(=S)-NH2 group with –C(=O)-NH2, –C(=NH)-NH2 and –C(=O)-CH3 resulted in the reduction/loss of activity (unpublished data). With this background, analogue of compound 1 with  different substitutions on the phenyl ring at 5th position of pyrazoline were designed, synthesized and evaluated for the antitubercular activity under iron stress using Mycobacterium smegmatis. Compounds were also subjected to in vitro cytotoxicity studies. Potent compound from this series is currently under screening against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and we are also planning for similar studies against resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.     

Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

Vitex doniana Sweet, a plant commonly known black plum, in English, Prunier noir in French, dinya in Hausa , ucha koro in Igbo,  oori-nla  in yoruba and ngarmi in Kanuri  is a medium-sized deciduous tree, 8-18m high, with a heavy rounded crown and a clear bole up to 5m. V. doniana is from Verbenaceae family and abundantly occurring in savannah regions. It can be found throughout tropical Africa.The ethanolic extract of Vitex doniana stem bark (11.9g) was subjected to a silica gel accelerated column chromatography and eluents fractions (150ml aliquots) obtained were collected and monitored with thin layer chromatography (TLC).. Fractions with similar Rf values from same solvents system were poled together. Phytochemical test of all the fractions were perform. Complete elution yielded 48 fractions (150ml/fraction) which were pooled to 24 fractions and finally to eight (8) eight fractions and coded.  Fraction Vd8-a (56mg) has gave a single spot  a white crystal compound coded V1 on checking with TLC and observed under Ultraviolet lamp .The Rf values was calculated to be 0.433 and melting point was found to be 241-243°C uncorrected. The infra red spectrum of compound V1 shows prominent peaks that corresponds to OHstr (3365cm-1) and C=0 (1652cm-1). The 1H NMR (400 MHZ) spectrum of compound V1 in DMSO-d6 displayed five singlet signals. It further showed a broad singlet at δ 5.58 integrated for 1 H is due to an olefinic H-atom adjacent to the carbonyl carbon atom. Three signals at δ 3.10` (d, J = 9.0 Hz, H-22), 3.59 (m, 1H, 2H-a) and 3.72 (m, 1H, 3H-e) each integrating for one proton is due to an oxymethine protons indicating that three oxymethine H-atoms were present in the compound. The 13C-NMR spectrum showed the presence of 27 Carbon atoms, suggesting that may be steroid skeleton and The DEPT-135 spectra showed the presence of five CH3, eight CH2, and seven CH groups, and seven quaternary C-atoms. The Molecular formula was established as C27H44O7 by HRES-MS positive ion mode m/z 481.3179. Based on the spectral analysis, the compound V1 is thus concluded to have ecdysteriod skeleton and conclusively conforms with 2β, 3β 14α, 20R, 22R, 25- hexahydroxy-5 β cholest-7-ene-6- one, commonly known as 20-hydroxyecdysone. This is the first time this compound was isolated from vitex doniana sweet.

Speaker
Biography:

Prof. Mohan Paul Singh Ishar, an alumnus of Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, is presently serving as Vice Chancellor, Maharaja Ranjit Singh Punjab Technical University, Bathinda (Punjab) India. With more than 1500 citations, 120 papers in reputed journals and 70 presentations in conferences, he is leading a research team focusing on Synthetic Organic and Medical Chemistry; the Design Synthesis and Evaluation of Biologically Active Compounds, Anti-Cancer Drugs and Anti-Microbial Agents, Allene Chemistry, Steroid Chemistry and Organic Photo Chemistry. and also serving as an editorial board member of repute.

Abstract:

The systematic discovery of new drugs, also called “Drug Designing”, involves envisioning, preparation and systematic evaluation of specific new molecules leading to more efficient drug discovery. A modern drug designing research is a frontier area which requires  inputs from diverse disciplines such as Natural product chemistry, Synthetic chemistry, Computational chemistry, Spectroscopic techniques- in particular NMR and X-ray crystallography, Biochemistry, Physiology, Genomic technologies, Bioinformatics, Molecular biology, Microbiology, Pharmacology, etc. A number of approaches are being adopted for discovery of new “lead” structures. Despite tremendous advancements made in synthetic methodologies, natural products continue to be the most consistent source of new exotic molecular frameworks fore drug discovery. Despite tremendous advancements in identification of new targets for chemotherapeutic intervention in fight against cancer and combination regimens of available anti-cancer drugs, problem of adverse effects and developing resistance of cancer cells to drugs have made many chemotherapeutic regimens ineffective. Therefore, the search for novel targets for anticancer drugs and more effective chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer is highly desired. The presentation enlists modern targets for anticancer drug designing program and includes examples form our own work on design, synthesis and systematic evaluation of some chromone and β-ionone based cytotoxic agents obtained through environmentally benign synthetic protocols.

Speaker
Biography:

Faizah has completed his PhD from University of East Anglia. She is work under suprvised of Professor Chris Pickett . She has published two papers and three papers. Now, She work as Assistant Professor of Inorganic Chemistry at Taibah University in Saudi Arabia.

Abstract:

Second coordination sphere interactions of metal centres involving hydrogen bonding, ion-pairing or dipolar bonding can play an important role in determining the physical and chemical properties of molecular and biomolecular systems. The second coordination sphere interactions of coordinated cyanide in a model for the diiron subsite of [FeFe]-hydrogenase has been examined. The natural subsite in its protein environment catalyses hydrogen evolution (or uptake) at very fast rates ca 104 s-1 near the reversible potential of the H+ 1/2 H2 couple but such rates have yet to be attained in model systems. Controlling the electronic and geometric properties of synthetic diiron subsites by hydrogen bonding or other interactions might provide a means of attaining the turnover rates of the natural system. The specific approach taken in this work was to explore the potential binding properties of certain bis- and tris-(thio)ureas to the synthetic subsite analogue [Fe2(CO)4(CN)2pdt]2-. It is shown that hydrogen bonding interactions with the ligated cyanide using certain activated amides also perturbs spectroscopic and redox properties and importantly, the rate of protonation at the metal-metal bond and the stability of the resulting µ-hydride.    

Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

Phosphorylation-dephosphorylation is a predominant mechanism involved in the regulation of eukaryotic cell function. During the last decade, protein kinases and phosphatases have been extensively studied and members of both enzyme families have been proved to be related with various diseases. As a result drug research has been focused in specific kinase or phosphatase regulation. PTP1B is a protein tyrosine phosphatase, acting on insulin receptor. Interaction of insulin with its receptor results in changes in the intracellular structure of the receptor followed by the phosphorylation of three tyrosine residues. This is the first step of a cascade of intracellular events leading to glucose uptake. The cascade is terminated by the dephosphorylation of insulin receptor by PTP1B. Thus, PTP1B inhibition, resulting in prolonged maintenance of the phosphorylated state, practically enhances insulin effect. Consequently, effective and selective PTP1B inhibitors can be potent drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. LAR, a receptor-like transmembrane PTP is also believed to be a target for insulin receptor signalling, as LAR inhibitors were found to dramatically potentiate insulin's effects. Moreover, it was found that it is concentrated in mature synapses in hippocampal neurons, and is believed to play a role in the development and maintenance of excitatory synapses. HSP-2 is one of the classical non-transmembrane PTPs. A mutation in the gene, making HSP-2 continuously active results in Noonan syndrome, a developmental disorder affecting 1 in 2500 newborns that may lead to a higher risk for certain cancers, including juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia. Treatment with HSP-2 selective inhibitors could bring hope to Noonan Syndrom patients. Although, many compounds have been tested as PTP1B inhibitors, the race for finding a highly effective and absolutely selective inhibitor continues. Most inhibitors act on more than one protein phosphatases. In the present study, we synthesised a number of 3-((furan-2-yl)methyl)-2-phenyl thiazolidin-4-one derivatives and tested their PTP1B inhibitory activity as well as the structure – activity relationship. Many of the derivatives showed good inhibitory action. Moreover, we evaluated the specificity of the compounds by testing the inhibition of protein phosphatases LAR and SHP-2. All inhibitory actions were tested using human recombinant phosphatases. In all cases p-nitro-phenyl-phosphate was used as substrate.

Hattab Youcef

University of Science and Technology of Oran M.B., Algeria.

Title: Synthesis and characterizations of organophile MMT –copolymer (St-THF) nanocomposite
Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

Nanocomposites, are mixed materials synthesized from one or two polymers blended in optimized percentages and Organophilic clay. The objective of this study is to use the Organophilic clay (Maghnite: montmorillonite) in the presence of tow monomers to obtain a copolytetrahydrofuran- styrene nanocomposite by in-situ polymerization. Organophilic montmorillonite (O-MMT) was prepared by ion exchange between Na+ ions in the clay hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromine cations in an aqueous medium. The organophilic MMT particles were easily dispersed in styrene (St) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) monomer. The structure of obtained modifier was investigated by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (RMN1H), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The exfoliating structure of nanocomposite was probed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Thermal stability were also investigated with thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), comparing with pure polystyrene, the nanocomposite showed much higher decomposition temperature.  

Speaker
Biography:

Professor Sabu Thomas is presently the Director and Professor of  International and Interuniversity Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology and  School of Chemical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, India. He has more than 30 years’ experience in Polymer Science and Technology and has contributed greatly to the research and development of  Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. Prof. Sabu Thomas received his Ph. D from IIT, Kharagpur and  then joined as a Senior Visiting Researcher, Katholieke University, Leuven, Belgium and  Laval University, Quebec, Canada. He is one of the pioneers of polymer science and technology and has published over 750 peer reviewed research papers.He has co-edited nearly 60 books and is the inventor of 5 patents. He has supervised 79 Ph.D theses and his H index is 79  with nearly 29,675  citations. Prof. Thomas has delivered over 300 Plenary/Inaugural and Invited lectures in national/international meetings over 30 countries. He is currently, the chief editor of Nano-Structures & Nano-Objects and also serves the reviewer for several International journals. Professor Thomas  has received a number of national and international awards including, FRSC,MRSI, Nano Tech, CRSI, Sukumar Maithy Award etc. He is in the list of most productive researchers in India and holds a position of No.5. Thomas has been conferred Honoris Causa (D.Sc) by the University of South Brittany, France in 2015 and in 2017 he has been selected for conferring  with D.Sc from University Lorraine, France.

Abstract:

The talk will concentrate on various approaches being used to engineer materials at the nanoscale for various applications in future technologies. In particular, the case of clay, carbon nanostructures (e.g. nanotubes, graphene), metal oxides, bionanomaterials (cellulose, starch and chitin) will be used to highlight the challenges and progress. Several polymer systems will be considered such as rubbers, thermoplastics, thermosets and their blends for the fabrication of functional polymer nanocomposites. The interfacial activity of nanomaterials in compatibilising binary polymer blends will also be discussed.   Various self assembled architectures of hybrid nanostructures can be made using relatively simple processes. Some of these structures offer excellent opportunity to probe novel nanoscale behavior and can impart unusual macroscopic end properties. I will talk about various applications of these materials, taking into account their multifunctional properties. Some of the promising applications of clay, metal oxides, nano cellulose, chitin, carbon nanomaterials and their hybrids will be reviewed.  Finally the effect of dewetting up on solvent rinsing on nano scale thin films will also be discussed. 

Speaker
Biography:

Imene Sehout has her PhD in organic chemistry at the age of 26 years, after years of experience in research, evaluation, teaching in the University of the Brothers Mentouri Constantine- Algeria; her researches were based on the use of new green and safe methods in organic synthesis. She has used natural catalysts to achieve biologically active molecules.
 

Abstract:

Requirements of modern chemistry, including the development of new synthesis with new secure, economic and environmentally protocols guide us to the field of green chemistry [1]. The development of solvent-free organic synthetic methods has become an important research area, aiming to save energy and to prevent hazardous solvent waste and toxicity in chemical processes. On the other hand, the catalyst is the most important factor in organic synthesis for its important role in a reaction by its presence or by its intervention. Green chemistry has allowed the emergence of new horizons in the field of catalysis; it is now the ninth principle of green chemistry. Several green methods were applied as microwave [2], ultrasound [3], ionic liquids [4], nanoparticles [5]. On our part we have contributed to this effect by the development of two new natural catalysts, inexpensive, non-toxic and very available, which are ascorbic acid and acetyl salicylic acid. We applied our two new natural catalysts in the Hantzsch reaction (Figure:1), which is a multicomponent reaction, it is considered as a green reaction, by the fact they generate in record time and with good yields molecular structures with great complexity. The achieved results are remarkable, we could synthesize a range of 1.8-dioxodecahydroacridine derivatives (6), and polyhydroquinolines (7) with yields ranging between (47-99) % in the time range from (1.5-6) hours, we also enriched the bibliography molecules by synthesis of authentic molecules.

Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

Cancer cell resistance to widely used chemotherapeutic agents is gradually developed. Natural products, mainly isolated from medicinal plants, have been considered as valuable sources for herbal anticancer drugs. The present study aimed to evaluate in vitro antiproliferative, antioxidant, and apoptosis-inducing activities of the crude ethyl alcohol extract of dried flower buds of clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) extract on human gastric carcinoma (AGS). Crude ethyl alcohol extract of dried flower buds of S. aromaticum was prepared. In vitro antiproliferative activity of the extract in AGS and normal (HDFs) cell lines was evaluated using MTT assay. To determine the induction of apoptosis, AGS cells were incubated with one time IC50 concentrations of the extract, stained with both propidium iodide (PI) and Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), and analyzed by flow cytometry. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic, and flavonoids content was evaluated with 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, Folin-Ciocalteu method and aluminum chloride colorimetric method, respectively. Our results showed that the IC50 of DPPH radical, total phenolic and flavonoid amounts of the extract was 10.05±0.8μg/ml, 225.6±4 mgGAE/g and 29.3±2.35mgRUT/g, respectively. The extract inhibited the proliferation of AGS cells, with IC50 values of 118.7 μg/ml at 48 h after treatment. The results of flow cytometric analysis showed that the extract induced cell apoptosis, with the apoptosis ratio of 21.61% in AGS cell line. In conclusion, the crude ethyl alcohol extract of clove had the best antioxidant activity and the highest total phenolic content and suppresses the proliferation of human gastric cancer cells due to induction of apoptosis.

Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Wajaht Amin Shah has completed his Ph.D.  in natural product chemistry. He has published  papers in various international journals on natural product chemistry and synthetic chemistry. He has produced various doctoral and pre doctoral students under his supervision. He is presently working as Associate Professor in the department of chemistry university of Kashmir and is actively involved in guiding PG students and doctoral students.

Abstract:

Ursolic acid present abundantly in plant kingdom is a well-known compound with various promising biological activities including, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antiallergic and anti-HIV properties. Herein, a library of ursolic acid-benzylidine derivatives have been designed and synthesized using Claisen Schmidt condensation of ursolic acid with various aromatic aldehydes in an attempt to develop potent antitumor agents. The compounds were evaluated against a panel of four human carcinoma cell lines including, A-549 (lung), MCF-7 (breast), HCT-116 (colon), THP-1 (leukemia) and a normal human epithelial cell line (FR-2). The results from MTT assay revealed that all the compounds displayed high level of antitumor activities compared with the triazole analogs (previously reported) and the parent ursolic acid. However, compound 3b, the most active derivative was subjected to mechanistic studies to understand the underlying mechanism. The results revealed that compound 3b induced apoptosis in HCT-116 cell lines, arrest cell cycle in the G1 phase, caused accumulation of cytochrome c in the cytosol and increased the expression levels of caspase-9 and caspase-3 proteins. Therefore, compound 3b induces apoptosis in HCT-116 cells through mitochondrial pathway.

Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

The air dried sample V. doniana after collection and identification, was extracted with ethanol and further partition with chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The ethanolic extract (11.9g) was fractionated on a silica gel accelerated column chromatography using solvents such as n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Each eluents fractions (150ml aliquots) were collected and monitored with thin layer chromatography. Fractions with similar Rf values from same solvents system were poled together. Phytochemical test of all the fractions were performed using standard procedure. Complete elution yielded 48 fractions (150ml/fraction) which were pooled to 24 fractions base on the Rf values. It was further recombined and 12 fractions were obtained on the basis on Rf values and coded Vd1 to Vd12 fractions. Vd8 was further eluted with ethylacetate and methanol and gave fourteen 14 sub fractions Vd8-a, -Vd8-m .Fraction Vd8-a (56mg) has gave a white crystal compound coded V1.  It was further checked on TLC and observed under Ultraviolet lamp and was found to give a single spot. The Rf values was calculated to be 0.433. The melting point was determined using Gallenkamp capillary melting point apparatus and found to be 241-243°C uncorrected. Characterization of the isolated compound coded V1 was done using FT-infra-red spectroscopy, HNMR, 13CNMR(1and 2D)  and HRESI-MS. The IR spectrum of compound V1 shows prominent peaks that corresponds to OHstr (3365cm-1) and C=0 (1652cm-1) etc. This spectrum suggests that among the functional moiety in compound V1 are the carbonyl and hydroxyl group. The 1H NMR (400 MHZ) spectrum of compound V1 in DMSO-d6 displayed five singlet signals at δ 0.72 (3H, s, H-18), 0.79 (3H, s, H-19), 1.03 (3H, s, H-21), 1.04 (3H, s, H-26), 1.06 (3H, s, H-27) each integrating for three protons indicating the five methyl functional groups are present in the compound. It further showed a broad singlet at δ 5.58 integrated for 1 H is due to an olefinic H-atom adjacent to the carbonyl carbon atom. Three signals at δ 3.10` (d, J = 9.0 Hz, H-22), 3.59 (m, 1H, 2H-a) and 3.72 (m, 1H, 3H-e) each integrating for one proton is due to an oxymethine protons indicating that three oxymethine H-atoms are present in the compound. These all signals are characteristic to the ecdysteroid skeletons. The 13C-NMR spectrum showed the presence of 27 Carbon atoms, suggesting that may be steroid skeleton. The DEPT-135 experiment showed the presence of five CH3, eight CH2, and seven CH groups, and seven quaternary C-atoms. The Molecular formula was established as C27H44O7 by High resolution Electron spray ionization-Mass spectroscopy (HRESI-MS) positive ion mode m/z 481.3179. The signals in Mass spectrum 463, 445, and 427 peaks corresponding to losses of one, two, three, or four water molecules are characteristic for Ecdysterone skeleton reported in the literature. Based on the spectral analysis (HNMR, 13CNMR, DEPT, HMQC, IR, HRESI-MS) the compound V1 is thus concluded to have ecdysteriod skeleton and conclusively conforms with 2β, 3β 14α, 20R, 22R, 25- hexahydroxy-5 β cholest-7-ene-6- one, or 2, 3,14, 20, 22, 25 hexahydroxy cholest-7-ene-6-one commonly known as 20-hydroxyecdysone.

Speaker
Biography:

Haroon ur Rashid  has completed his PhD at the age of 32 years from School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, China and postdoctoral studies from Institute of Chemistry, Federal Univewrsity of Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS, Brazil. He is currently working as Assistant Professor in Department of Chemistry, Sarhad University of Science & Information Technlogy, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.. He has published more than 14  papers in reputed journals.

Abstract:

Lanthanide-doped Gadolinium nanoparticles have attracted considerable attention due to their promising applications in biological imaging. Sodium gadolinium fluoride (β-NaGdF4) acts as a perfect host material for doping of luminescent lanthanide ions. Presence of seven unpaired electrons in Gd+3 ion, its large magnetic moment and long electronic relaxation time makes it an ideal candidate to enhance water proton relaxation rates. Therefore, Gd-based nanoparticles may also be applied as MRI contrast agents. Due to heavy nature of Gadolinium, it can strongly absorb X-ray radiations.  In this work, sodium gadolinium fluoride is doped with ytterbium and erbium to produce β-NaGdF4:Yb/Er as core nanoparticles. They are subsequently coated with sodium gadolinium fluoride doped with neodymium (β-NaGdF4:Nd) to produce β-NaGdF4:Yb/[email protected]β-NaGdF4:Nd core-shell nanoparticles. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were used for the characterization of nanoparticles. Gadolinium-based nanoparticles doped with Yb and Er or Yb and Tm have proved to be useful up-converting materials. Nanoparticles reported in this work are expected to be useful trimodal contrast agents for Photoluminescence, X-ray tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).